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Text Leiden+ Documentation

Formatting - Word and Document

Document Division (return to top)

Document Div, ab (anonymous block)

To get this PN preview: PN does not indicate explicitly

Use this Leiden+: <= =>

To create this XML: <ab> </ab>

Example PN Link:

Every block of text must be enclosed in a <= ... => pair.


Document Div, recto/verso

To get this PN preview: recto/verso

Use this Leiden+: <D=.r<= 1. line of text 2. line of text =>=D> <D=.v<= 3. line of text 4. line of text =>=D>

To create this XML: <div n="r" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="1"/>line of text <lb n="2"/>line of text </ab></div> <div n="v" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="3"/>line of text <lb n="4"/>line of text </ab></div>

Example PN Link:

Recto and verso are indicated with closed pairs of tags as follows:

    <S=.grc
    <D=.r<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text 
    =>=D> 
    <D=.v<= 
    3. line of text 
    4. line of text 
    =>=D> 

Note that the pair of tags inside the recto/verso tags and directly adjacent to the text is the <= => pair (see Document Division, ab)

Please note that the sequence "<S=.grc" must always be present at the very top of the page. If it is deleted what follows can only be saved in Broken Leiden+. "grc" indicates the use of Ancient Greek as the language. This can, of course, be changed to the appropriate language, e.g. "la" for Latin. "<S=.language marker" must always be present.


Document Div, fragment

To get this PN preview: fragment 1/fragment 2

Use this Leiden+: <D=.1.fragment<= 1. line of text 2. line of text =>=D> <D=.2.fragment<= 3. line of text 4. line of text =>=D>

To create this XML: <div n="1" subtype="fragment" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="1"/>line of text <lb n="2"/>line of text </ab></div> <div n="2" subtype="fragment" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="3"/>line of text <lb n="4"/>line of text </ab></div>

Example PN Link:

Fragments are indicated with closed pairs of tags as follows:

    <D=.1.fragment<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text 
    =>=D> 
    <D=.2.fragment<= 
    3. line of text 
    4. line of text 
    =>=D> 

Note that the pair of tags inside the fragment tags and directly adjacent to the text is the <= => pair (see Document Division, ab)


Document Div, part

To get this PN preview: part A/part B

Use this Leiden+: <D=.A.part<= 1. line of text 2. line of text =>=D> <D=.B.part<= 3. line of text 4. line of text =>=D>

To create this XML: <div n="A" subtype="part" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="1"/>line of text <lb n="2"/>line of text </ab></div> <div n="B" subtype="part" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="3"/>line of text <lb n="4"/>line of text </ab></div>

Example PN Link:

Parts of a document are indicated with closed pairs of tags as follows:

    <D=.A.part<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text 
    =>=D> 
    <D=.B.part<= 
    3. line of text 
    4. line of text 
    =>=D> 

Note that the pair of tags inside the part tags and directly adjacent to the text is the <= => pair (see Document Division, ab)


Document Div, column

To get this PN preview: column i / column ii

Use this Leiden+: <D=.i.column<= 1. line of text 2. line of text =>=D> <D=.ii.column<= 3. line of text 4. line of text =>=D>

To create this XML: <div n="i" subtype="column" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="1"/>line of text <lb n="2"/>line of text </ab></div> <div n="ii" subtype="column" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="3"/>line of text <lb n="4"/>line of text </ab></div>

Example PN Link:

Columns are indicated with closed pairs of tags as follows:

    <D=.i.column<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text
    =>=D> 
    <D=.ii.column<= 
    3. line of text 
    4. line of text 
    =>=D> 

Note that the pair of tags inside the column tags and directly adjacent to the text is the <= => pair (see Document Division, ab)


Document Div, folio

To get this PN preview: folio a / folio b

Use this Leiden+: <D=.a.folio<= 1. line of text 2. line of text =>=D> <D=.b.folio<= 3. line of text 4. line of text =>=D>

To create this XML: <div n="a" subtype="folio" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="1"/>line of text <lb n="2"/>line of text </ab></div> <div n="b" subtype="folio" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="3"/>line of text <lb n="4"/>line of text </ab></div>

Example PN Link:

Folios are indicated with closed pairs of tags as follows:

    <D=.a.folio<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text 
    =>=D> 
    <D=.b.folio<= 
    3. line of text 
    4. line of text 
    =>=D> 

Note that the pair of tags inside the folio tags and directly adjacent to the text is the <= => pair (see Document Division, ab)


Document Div, nested

To get this PN preview: Divisions indicated variously

Use this Leiden+: <D=.a.folio<= 1. line of text 2. line of text =>=D> <D=.b.folio<= 3. line of text 4. line of text =>=D>

To create this XML: <div n="a" subtype="folio" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="1"/>line of text <lb n="2"/>line of text </ab></div> <div n="b" subtype="folio" type="textpart"><ab> <lb n="3"/>line of text <lb n="4"/>line of text </ab></div>

Example PN Link:

Document divisions can be nested so long as tag pairs no not overlap:

    <D=.r 
    <D=.i.column<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text 
    =>=D> 
    <D=.ii.column 
    <D=.a.fragment<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text 
    =>=D> 
    <D=.b.fragment<= 
    1. line of text 
    2. line of text 
    =>=D> 
    =D> 
    =D> 
    <D=.v<= 
    1. line of text 
    =>=D> 

Note that no matter how nested the divisions are, the pair of tags directly adjacent to the text is always the <= => pair (see Document Division, ab)


Line Number (return to top)

Line break

To get this PN preview: 1.

Use this Leiden+: 1.

To create this XML: <lb n="1"/>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.1.117

To indicate line number. Every line must have a line number.


Words that wrap across lines

To get this PN preview: 5

Use this Leiden+: 5.-

To create this XML: <lb n="5" break="no"/>

Example PN Link: p.col.;10;259

Words that wrap from the end of one line to the beginning of the next. Note that in Leiden+ the hyphen must be written at the start of the following line:

    12. ἃς καὶ <:ἀποδώσει|orth|αποδωσι:> ἐν μηνὶ Πα 
    13.- ῦ̣[νι τοῦ] ἐνεσ[τ]ῶτος ἔτους 

In the PN the hyphen will be displayed in the expected location:

    ἃς καὶ ἀποδώσει ἐν μηνὶ Πα- 
    ῦ̣[νι τοῦ] ἐνεσ[τ]ῶτος ἔτους

Line rendered perpendicular to the main body of text

To get this PN preview: ø --> 2. (perpendicular)

Use this Leiden+: (2, perpendicular)

To create this XML: <lb n="2" rend="perpendicular"/>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Bibl.12

Numbered line written perpendicular to main text.


Line rendered inverse to the main body of text

To get this PN preview: ø --> 8. (inverse)

Use this Leiden+: (8, inverse)

To create this XML: <lb n="8" rend="inverse"/>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.16.1951

Numbered line written inverse to main text.


Line with word-wrap written inverse to main text

To get this PN preview: ø --> 3. (inverse) with hyphen at end of preceding line

Use this Leiden+: (3.-, inverse)

To create this XML: <lb n="3" rend="inverse" break="no"/>

Example PN Link: SB.24.16170

For lines written inverse / perpendicular to main text and containing a word-wrap, simply add hyphen to the regular convention.


Line written in left margin

To get this PN preview: 3,ms

Use this Leiden+: 3,ms.

To create this XML: <lb n="3,ms"/>

Example PN Link: P.Hib.1.74

Numbered line written in left margin.


Line rendered perpendicular to the main body of text in left margin

To get this PN preview: 8,ms --> 8,ms (perpendicular)

Use this Leiden+: (8,ms, perpendicular)

To create this XML: <lb n="8,ms" rend="perpendicular"/>

Example PN Link: P.Harr.1.161

Numbered line written in left margin and perpendicular to main text.


Line rendered inverse to the main body of text in lower margin

To get this PN preview: 16,minf --> 16,minf (inverse) NOTE: getting cut off at left

Use this Leiden+: (16,minf, inverse)

To create this XML: <lb n="16,minf" rend="inverse"/>

Example PN Link: P.Cair.Zen.5.59838

Numbered line written in lower margin and inverse to main text.


Line 5 to 6

To get this PN preview: 5/6

Use this Leiden+: 5/6.

To create this XML: <lb n="5/6"/>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.1.117

For use in rare cases in which lines are presented so as not to indicate break; not recommended.


Vacat (return to top)

Character space extent unknown

To get this PN preview: vac.

Use this Leiden+: vac.?

To create this XML: <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.2.39

Vacat of unknown number of characters. It is tempting to use vac.? to replicate the modern print publication convention of separating, e.g. items from numbers in accounts and the like. Rampant use of vac.? for this purpose is discouraged. Use vac.? only where there is empty space on the physical text; if such is not verifiable against image or original do not use vac.?.


Character space quantity

To get this PN preview: --> vac.3

Use this Leiden+: vac.3

To create this XML: <space quantity="3" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link:

Vacat of known number of characters.


Character space range

To get this PN preview: --> vac.2-5

Use this Leiden+: vac.2-5

To create this XML: <space atLeast="2" atMost="5" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link:

Vacat of known range of characters.


Character space quantity precision low

To get this PN preview: --> vac. ca.3

Use this Leiden+: vac.ca.3

To create this XML: <space quantity="3" unit="character" precision="low"/>

Example PN Link:

Vacat of estimated range of characters.


Line space extent unknown

To get this PN preview: --> vac. ? lines

Use this Leiden+: vac.?lin

To create this XML: <space extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link:

Vacat of unknown number of lines.


Line space quantity

To get this PN preview: --> vac. 3 lines

Use this Leiden+: vac.3lin

To create this XML: <space quantity="3" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link:

Vacat of known number of lines.


Line space range

To get this PN preview: --> vac. 2-5 lines

Use this Leiden+: vac.2-5lin

To create this XML: <space atLeast="2" atMost="5" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link:

Vacat of known range of lines.


Line space quantity precision low

To get this PN preview: --> vac ca.3 lines

Use this Leiden+: vac.ca.3lin

To create this XML: <space quantity="3" unit="line" precision="low"/>

Example PN Link:

Vacat of estimated number of lines.


Marginalia (return to top)

Text inserted / added above line

To get this PN preview: \ὅλων/

Use this Leiden+: \ὅλων/

To create this XML: <add place="above">ὅλων</add>

Example PN Link: P.Matr.2

To indicate text inserted or added above a line, as 'afterthought' or self-correction (for conventional drop-ins: \καὶ/)


Text inserted / added below line

To get this PN preview: /δ\

Use this Leiden+: //<#δ=4#>\\

To create this XML: <add place="below"><num value="4">δ</num></add>

Example PN Link:

To indicate text inserted or added below a line, as 'afterthought' or self-correction (see print conventional: /καὶ\)


Text inserted / added to the left margin

To get this PN preview: (added at left: αβγ)

Use this Leiden+: ||left:καὶ||

To create this XML: <add place="left">καὶ</add>

Example PN Link: p.jena;2;10

To indicate text inserted / added to the left of a line


Text inserted / added to the right margin

To get this PN preview: (added at right: αβγ)

Use this Leiden+: ||right:καὶ||

To create this XML: <add place="right">καὶ</add>

Example PN Link:

To indicate text inserted / added to the right of a line


Text added between lines

To get this PN preview: ὧν (in smaller font)

Use this Leiden+: ||interlin: ὧ( ῾)ν||

To create this XML: <add place="interlinear"><hi rend="asper">ὧ</hi>ν</add>

Example PN Link: P.Panop.14

To indicate text added between two lines


Text sling in margin

To get this PN preview: ν

Use this Leiden+: <|ν|>

To create this XML: <add rend="sling" place="margin">ν</add>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.303

Need to create detailed instructions and explanation


Text underline in margin

To get this PN preview: οὕτως ἔχει

Use this Leiden+: <_οὕτως ἔχει_>

To create this XML: <add rend="underline" place="margin">οὕτως ἔχει</add>

Example PN Link: P.Prag.2.137

Need to create detailed instructions and explanation


Text above line with cert low

To get this PN preview: Θέ̣ων̣(?) = SoSOL, Θέ̣ων̣(?)/ = PN

Use this Leiden+: Θέ̣ων̣?/

To create this XML: <add cert="low" place="above">Θ<unclear>έ</unclear>ω<unclear>ν</unclear></add>

Example PN Link: PSI.4.281

Need to create detailed instructions and explanation


Special Formatting (return to top)

Text in box

To get this PN preview: Text: milestone01…App: ctr.11. Text in box

Use this Leiden+: ###

To create this XML: <milestone rend="box" unit="undefined"/>

Example PN Link: BGU.7.1537

To indicate text written inside a 'box'.


Tall text

To get this PN preview: ø --> render taller

Use this Leiden+: ~||x||~tall

To create this XML: <hi rend="tall">x</hi>

Example PN Link: P.Oslo.2.26

Oversized / tall text.


Superscripted text

To get this PN preview: superscript

Use this Leiden+: |^Ἡρωνείνῳ^|

To create this XML: <hi rend="superscript">Ἡρωνείνῳ</hi>

Example PN Link: P.Laur.1.3

Text written in superscript, as distinct from text added above the line, as 'afterthought' or 'self-correction' (for which use \καὶ/). In general we do not encode superscript characters that indicate abbreviation.


Subscripted text

To get this PN preview: subscript

Use this Leiden+: \|τα|/

To create this XML: <hi rend="subscript">τα</hi>

Example PN Link:

To indicate subscripted text, as distinct from text added from below the line (for which use //καὶ\\).


Supraline

To get this PN preview: νο ̣--> with supraline

Use this Leiden+: ¯νο.1¯

To create this XML: <hi rend="supraline">νο<gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/></hi>

Example PN Link: P.Lips.1.102

To indicate supralines, most often used in case of numbers (not, as rule, for expansions)


Supraline and underline

To get this PN preview: ø --> underline and supraline

Use this Leiden+: =εὐτύχει=

To create this XML: <hi rend="supraline-underline">εὐτύχει</hi>

Example PN Link: BGU.4.1201

To indicate text that is both underlined and supralined.


Preservation

Letters Lost (return to top)

See Leiden Square Brackets [ ].


Lines Lost (return to top)

Known number of lines missing

To get this PN preview: [7 lines missing]

Use this Leiden+: lost.7lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.3.617

To indicate a known number of lost lines.


Approximate number of lines lost

To get this PN preview: [ca 7 lines missing]

Use this Leiden+: lost.ca.7lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="line" precision="low"/>

Example PN Link: O.Kell.13

To indicate approximate number of lines lost.


Approximate range of lines lost

To get this PN preview: [3-4 lines missing]

Use this Leiden+: lost.3-4lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" atLeast="3" atMost="4" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link: P.Lille.1.29

To indicate approximate range of lines lost.


Unknown number of lines lost

To get this PN preview: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Use this Leiden+: lost.?lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link:

To indicate unknown number of lines lost. This is used to indicate "break" in the papyrus. Enter as follows:

    1. lost.?lin 
    1. first line of text 
    2. second line of text 
    3. third line of text 
    3. lost.?lin

Unknown number of lines lost (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- (?)

Use this Leiden+: lost.?lin(?)

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"><certainty match=".." locus="name"/></gap>

Example PN Link: O.Did.401

To indicate that we are uncertain as to whether an unknown number of lines are lost.


Illegible (return to top)

Gap illegible character

To get this PN preview: ̣ ̣ ̣

Use this Leiden+: .3

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" quantity="3" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: O.Berenike.1.6

To indicate a known number of illegible characters.


Gap illegible character (unknown)

To get this PN preview: - ca. ? -

Use this Leiden+: .?

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.1.13

To indicate an unknown number of illegible characters.


Approximate number of illegible characters

To get this PN preview: - ca.23 -

Use this Leiden+: ca.23

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" quantity="23" unit="character" precision="low"/>

Example PN Link: P.Wisc.1.1

To indicate an estimated number of illegible characters.


Known number of illegible characters

To get this PN preview: - ca.43 -

Use this Leiden+: .43

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" quantity="43" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: SB.20.14241

To indicate a known number of illegible characters. Note: all strings of illegible characters greater than 8 are rendered as approximations. So, ".43" will be encoded as a piece of editorial certainty (<gap reason="illegible" quantity="43" unit="character"/>), but will nevertheless be displayed as an approximation: "- ca.43 -"


Range of illegible characters

To get this PN preview: - ca. 9-10 -

Use this Leiden+: .9-10

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" atLeast="9" atMost="10" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: P.Eleph.Wagner.1.288

To indicate a known range of illegible characters.


Known number of illegible lines

To get this PN preview: Traces 5 lines

Use this Leiden+: .5lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" quantity="5" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link: P.Hib.2.253

To indicate a known number of illegible lines (e.g. vestiges)


Approximate number of illegible lines

To get this PN preview: Traces ca.20 lines

Use this Leiden+: ca.20lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" quantity="20" unit="line" precision="low"/>

Example PN Link: SB.24.15920

To indicate an estimated number of illegible lines (e.g. vestiges).


Range of illegible lines

To get this PN preview: Traces 2-3 lines

Use this Leiden+: .2-3lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" atLeast="2" atMost="3" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link: SB.20.14571

To indicate a range of illegible lines.


Vestiges (return to top)

Vestiges n lines

To get this PN preview: Traces 15 lines

Use this Leiden+: vestig.15lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" quantity="15" unit="line"><desc>vestiges</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Stras.6.559

Vestiges of known number of lines.


Vestiges range of lines

To get this PN preview: Traces 2-3 lines

Use this Leiden+: vestig.2-3lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" atLeast="2" atMost="3" unit="line"><desc>vestiges</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: BGU.3.916

Vestiges of known range of lines.


Vestiges ca.n lines

To get this PN preview: Traces ca.3 lines

Use this Leiden+: ex. vestig.ca.3lin

To create this XML: ex. <gap reason="illegible" quantity="3" unit="line" precision="low"><desc>vestiges</desc></gap>

Example PN Link:

Vestiges of estimated number of lines.


Vestiges ? lines

To get this PN preview: -ca.?- --> Traces ? lines

Use this Leiden+: vestig.?lin

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

Example PN Link: P.Stras.6.559

Vestiges of unknown number of lines.


Vestiges ? characters

To get this PN preview: -ca.?- --> Traces

Use this Leiden+: vestig

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" extent="unknown" unit="character"><desc>vestiges</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: O.Berenike.1.76

Vestiges of unknown number of characters. NOTE: You must enter a space after vestig; so, not "vestig" but "vestig ".


Vestiges ca.n characters

To get this PN preview: ca.traces - --> Traces 8 char. / Traces ca.14 char.

Use this Leiden+: vestig.14char

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" quantity="14" unit="character"><desc>vestiges</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Lips.1.21

Vestiges of known number of characters. Note: all vestige strings greater than 8 characters are rendered as approximations. So, "vestig.14char" will be encoded as a piece of editorial certainty, but will nevertheless be displayed as an approximation: "Traces ca.14 char."


Vestiges ca.n characters

To get this PN preview: ̣ ̣ ̣ --> Traces ca.3 char.

Use this Leiden+: example only - vestig.ca.3char

To create this XML: example only - <gap reason="illegible" quantity="3" unit="character" precision="low"><desc>vestiges</desc></gap>

Example PN Link:

Vestiges of estimated number of characters.


Vestiges range of characters

To get this PN preview: -ca.15-30- --> Traces ca.15-30 characters

Use this Leiden+: vestig.15-30char

To create this XML: <gap reason="illegible" atLeast="15" atMost="30" unit="character"><desc>vestiges</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.50.3557

Vestiges of range of characters.


Leiden Conventions

Leiden Angle Brackets < > (return to top)

Supplied omitted

To get this PN preview: <ἀπεγραψάμην>

Use this Leiden+: <ἀπεγραψάμην>

To create this XML: <supplied reason="omitted">ἀπεγραψάμην</supplied>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.117

Text omitted by scribe, inserted by modern editor. To indicate such added text, enclose it in angle brackets: e.g. <ἀπεγραψάμην>, ἀπ<ε>γραψάμην, etc.


Supplied omitted (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: <οὐκ(?)>

Use this Leiden+: <οὐκ(?)>

To create this XML: <supplied reason="omitted" cert="low">οὐκ</supplied>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.50.3581

To indicate text omitted by scribe and uncertainly inserted by modern editor.


Supplied omitted (inline)

To get this PN preview: ἀπ<ε>γραψάμην

Use this Leiden+: ἀπ<ε>γραψάμην

To create this XML: ἀπ<supplied reason="omitted">ε</supplied>γραψάμην

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

Note: for cases like ἀπ<ε>γραψάμην the DDbDP has historically entered an orthographic correction of the entire word, i.e. <:ἀπεγραψάμην|orth|απγραψαμην:>. Recommended practice now is to enter just the angle brackets wherever possible: ἀπ<ε>γραψάμην.

For more on this, see the documentation entry under Orthographic Correction.


Leiden Braces { } (return to top)

Surplus text

To get this PN preview: {ὀνόματος}

Use this Leiden+: {ὀνόματος}

To create this XML: <surplus>ὀνόματος</surplus>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.50.3583

Surplus text written by scribe, deleted by modern editor. To indicate such text enclose it in braces: e.g. {ὀνόματος}, ὀνό{μ}ματος.


Surplus text (inline)

To get this PN preview: ὁμο{μο}λογῶ.

Use this Leiden+: ὁμο{μο}λογῶ.

To create this XML: ὁμο<surplus>μο</surplus>λογῶ.

Example PN Link:

Surplus text written by scribe, deleted by modern editor.

For cases like ὁμολογῶι enter an orthographic regularization of the entire word, i.e. <:ὁμολογῶ|reg|ὁμολογῶι:>. But where the letter(s) is genuinely superfluous, use braces: ὁμο{μο}λογῶ.


Leiden Double Square Brackets 〚 〛 (return to top)

Deletion

To get this PN preview: 〚τοῖς κορασίοις〛

Use this Leiden+: 〚τοῖς κορασίοις〛

To create this XML: <del rend="erasure">τοῖς κορασίοις</del>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.34

Text deleted in antiquity. Note: this convention has been used to cover many modes of deletion (cancellation by slashes, expunction, strike-through, bracket-like marks on the papyrus, etc). Appearance of 〚...〛 does not imply one mode or another.


Deletion with slashes

To get this PN preview: Text: τραπέζης Φρέμει...App: 5. Text canceled with slashes

Use this Leiden+: 〚/ τραπέζης Φρέμει. 〛

To create this XML: <del rend="slashes"> τραπέζης Φρέμει. </del>

Example PN Link: cpr;1;15

Text deleted with slashes in antiquity: 〚/ τραπέζης Φρέμει.〛


Deletion with cross-strokes

To get this PN preview: Text: (hand 4) -ca.?-….App: v.1. Text canceled with cross-strokes

Use this Leiden+: 〚X $m4 lost.?lin 〛

To create this XML: <del rend="cross-strokes"> <handShift new="m4"/> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/> </del>

Example PN Link: p.lips;1;98

Text deleted with cross-strokes in antiquity: 〚X $m4 lost.?lin〛


Leiden Parentheses ( ) (return to top)

Expansion of part of word στρατηγ(ός)

To get this PN preview: στρατηγ(ός)

Use this Leiden+: (στρατηγ(ός))

To create this XML: <expan>στρατηγ<ex>ός</ex></expan>

Example PN Link: P.Col.10.285 line 33.

Ancient abbreviations. Note: Leiden+ handles στρατηγ( ) and στρατηγ(ός) differently. Where the abbreviation is expanded -- as in the case of στρατηγ(ός) -- enter as follows: (στρατηγ(ός)). For the other case, see below under Abbreviation.


Uncertain expansion of part of a word Καρ(ανίδι(?))

To get this PN preview: Καρ(ανίδι(?))

Use this Leiden+: (Καρ(ανίδι?))

To create this XML: <expan>Καρ<ex cert="low">ανίδι</ex></expan>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

Ancient abbreviations. For uncertain expansions, add "?" inside the expanded part of the word (στρατηγ(ός)) --> (στρατηγ(ός?)).


Partial expansion of part of a word Καρ(ανίδ )

To get this PN preview: Καρ(ανίδ ) --> Καρ(ανίδ-)???

Use this Leiden+: (Καρ(ανίδ ))

To create this XML: <expan>Καρ<ex>ανίδ </ex></expan>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

Ancient abbreviations. Where a word is only partially expanded (for example because the termination is unknown), enter as follows:

Καρ(ανίδ ) 

Note: leave two spaces between the last character and the closing parens.


Expansion of whole word (ἔτους)

To get this PN preview: ((ἔτους))

Use this Leiden+: ((ἔτους))

To create this XML: <expan><ex>ἔτους</ex></expan>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

For symbols that are fully expanded enter as follows: ((ἔτους)).


Expansion of whole word (ἔ̣τ̣ο̣υ̣ς̣) / (ἔτους?)

To get this PN preview: (ἔτους(?))

Use this Leiden+: ((ἔτους?))

To create this XML: <expan><ex cert="low">ἔτους</ex></expan>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

For symbols that are fully expanded, but uncertainly read enter as follows: ((ἔτους?)). This is often represented in print by (ἔ̣τ̣ο̣υ̣ς̣) / (ἔτους?).


Partial expansion of whole word (δραχμ )

To get this PN preview: (ἔτ ) --> (ἔτ-)???

Use this Leiden+: ((ἔτ ))

To create this XML: <expan><ex>ἔτ </ex></expan>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.154

For symbols that are partially expanded enter as follows (for example because the termination is unknown):

((ἔτ )) 

Note: leave two spaces between the last character and the closing parens.


Abbreviation, στρατηγ( )

To get this PN preview: ομυο( )

Use this Leiden+: (|ομυο|)

To create this XML: <abbr>ομυο</abbr>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.110

Ancient abbreviations. Note: Leiden+ treats resolved and unresolved abbreviations differently: so, enter

(στρατηγ(ός)) for στρατηγ(ός)

but enter

(|στρατηγ|) for στρατηγ( )

Abbreviation with markup σ[τρ]α̣τ̣ηγ( )

To get this PN preview: [ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣]χυρι̣ο( )

Use this Leiden+: (|[.8]χυρι̣ο|)

To create this XML: <abbr><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character"/>χυρ<unclear>ι</unclear>ο</abbr>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.110

For unresolved abbreviations: (|σ[τρ]α̣τ̣ηγ|) = σ[τρ]α̣τ̣ηγ( )


Abbreviation, λ( )(?)

To get this PN preview: λ( )(?)

Use this Leiden+: (|λ(?)|)

To create this XML: <abbr>λ<certainty locus="name" match=".."/></abbr>

Example PN Link: P.Lips.1.40

Ancient abbreviations. Where the expansion is unknown and it is not even certain whether the character(s) on the papyrus is meant to be an expansion or not, enter:

(|λ(?)|) 

This could indicate λ (i.e. 30) or, e.g. λ(όγος); but we cannot say for certain.


Leiden Square Brackets [ ] (return to top)

Lost character gap quantity

To get this PN preview: [ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ] / [ -ca.43- ]

Use this Leiden+: [.8] or [.43]

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character"/> or <gap reason="lost" quantity="43" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.110

Known number of characters lost in lacuna. Note: all strings of lost characters greater than 8 are rendered as approximations. So, "[.43]" will be encoded as a piece of editorial certainty, but will nevertheless be displayed as an approximation: "[ - ca.43 - ]"


Lost character gap quantity precision low

To get this PN preview: [ -ca.5- ]

Use this Leiden+: [ca.5]

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character" precision="low"/>

Example PN Link: O.Douch.2.88

To indicate an approximate number of lost characters inside lacuna, enter [ca.5], where '5' is the number of lost characters.


Lost character gap range

To get this PN preview: [ -ca.11-15- ]

Use this Leiden+: [.11-15]

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" atLeast="11" atMost="15" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.46.3285

Known range of characters lost in lacuna.


Lost character gap unknown quantity

To get this PN preview: [ - ca. ? - ]

Use this Leiden+: [.?]

To create this XML: <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: O.Berenike.1.6

Unknown number of characters lost in lacuna.


Supplied lost words

To get this PN preview: [ὁμο]λογῶ

Use this Leiden+: [ὁμο]λογῶ

To create this XML: <supplied reason="lost">ὁμο</supplied>λογῶ

Example PN Link: P.Matr.2

Letters lost in lacuna, restored by modern editor.


Supplied lost cert low

To get this PN preview: ἡμετέρ[α μήτηρ (?) - ca. ? - ]

Use this Leiden+: ἡμετέρ[α μήτηρ (?)] [.?]

To create this XML: ἡμετέρ<supplied reason="lost" cert="low">α μήτηρ </supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

Example PN Link: P.Matr.5

Letters lost in lacuna, restored by modern editor; restoration uncertain

Example: ἡμετέρ[α μήτηρ (?) -ca.?- ]

Note that the restoration of μήτηρ is uncertain, but the lacuna after it is not. Thus, encode as follows:

ἡμετέρ[α μήτηρ (?)] [.?] 

In order to indicate that the one restoration is uncertain and the other certain. For even greater precision, we might enter:

ἡμετέρ[α] [μήτηρ (?)] [.?] 

Leiden Underline ___ (return to top)

Supplied parallel

To get this PN preview: Πόσεις

Use this Leiden+: |_Πόσεις_|

To create this XML: <supplied evidence="parallel" reason="undefined">Πόσεις</supplied>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.2.39

Text supplied from parallel text, other copy, or transcription of previously visible text that is now lost or illegible.


Supplied parallel, low certainty

To get this PN preview: ἀρ(τάβας(?)) δωδέκ(ατον) εἰκ(οστοτέταρτον(?)) (ἀρτάβας) ιβ´ κδ´ † Ἀγαθάμμωνapp02 †/ ((tachygraphic-marks))

Use this Leiden+: `|_(ἀρ(τάβας?)) (δωδέκ(ατον)) (εἰκ(οστοτέταρτον?)) ((ἀρτάβας)) <#ιβ=frac1/12#> <#κδ=frac1/24#> stauros <:Ἀγαθάμμων|BL:8.441|(δ(ι)) (|μ|) κάμμονι:> stauros/ tachygraphic-marks(?)_|

To create this XML: <supplied evidence="parallel" reason="undefined" cert="low"><expan>ἀρ<ex cert="low">τάβας</ex></expan> <expan>δωδέκ<ex>ατον</ex></expan> <expan>εἰκ<ex cert="low">οστοτέταρτον</ex></expan> <expan><ex>ἀρτάβας</ex></expan> <num value="1/12" rend="fraction">ι

Example PN Link: Stud.Pal.3.503

Need to create detailed instructions and explanation


Supplied parallel, lost

To get this PN preview: ???

Use this Leiden+: _[abc]_

To create this XML: example only - <supplied evidence="parallel" reason="lost">abc</supplied>

Example PN Link:

Need to create detailed instructions and explanation


Other Editorial Conventions

Handshift (return to top)

To get this PN preview: (hand 4)

Use this Leiden+: $m4

To create this XML: <handShift new="m4"/>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.2.35

Handshift. Note: where there are multiple hands, you do not need to indicate the first.


Handshift (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: (hand 3?)

Use this Leiden+: $m3(?)

To create this XML: <handShift new="m3" cert="low"/>

_Example PN Link: P.Polit.Iud.19

Uncertain handshift.


Editorial Note (return to top)

To get this PN preview: (BGU 1,108,r reprinted in WChr 227 )

Use this Leiden+: /*BGU 1,108,r reprinted in WChr 227 */

To create this XML: <note xml:lang="en">BGU 1,108,r reprinted in WChr 227 </note>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.108

To indicate modern editorial comment, for example that the recto of a given text has been republished elsewhere, or that a missing string should be a month name. Use sparingly.


Quotation (return to top)

To get this PN preview: 'ὁ γὰ̣ρ̣ ἐ̣λ̣εῶ̣ν̣ [πτωχόν]'

Use this Leiden+: " ὁ γὰ̣ρ̣ ἐ̣λ̣εῶ̣ν̣ [πτωχόν] "

To create this XML: <q> ὁ γ<unclear>ὰρ</unclear> <unclear>ἐλ</unclear>ε<unclear>ῶν</unclear> <supplied reason="lost">πτωχόν</supplied> </q>

Example PN Link: P.Gen.2.1.14

Modern mark indicating quotation.


Apparatus

Orthographic Regularization (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: φρόνδει[σ]ο̣ν App: l. φρόντι[σ]ον

Use this Leiden+: <:φρόντι[σ]ον|reg|φρόνδει[σ]ο̣ν:>

To create this XML: <choice><reg>φρόντι<supplied reason="lost">σ</supplied>ον</reg><orig>φρόνδει<supplied reason="lost">σ</supplied><unclear>ο</unclear>ν</orig></choice>

Example PN Link:

To be used for two classes of 'correction':

  1. Regularization/'correction' of non-standard orthographic form, e.g. αἰνακούεις for ἐνακούεις; in such cases the form is 'correct' but is not spelled in the canonical fashion.
  2. Correction of syntax not morphology, e.g. τῷ for τοῦ; in such cases the form is a valid one, but is not strictly correct in the context.

In past, DDbDP suppressed all diacriticals from the mistaken reading. NOTE that DDbDP now presents the reading of the papyrus in the text and the regularized reading in the apparatus (per modern convention). To support that change, we now enter orthographic 'corrections' differently.

  1. For φρόνδει[σ]ο̣ν --> φρόντισον encode, <:φρόντι[σ]ον|reg|φρόνδει[σ]ο̣ν:> (Note: all Leiden except underdots on left side of 'reg')
  2. PN displays: text: φρόνδει[σ]ο̣ν / app: Read φρόντι[σ]ον

Apparatus, orthographic regularization, multiple

To get this PN preview: Text: ἀ̣νύεται….App: l. ἀνοίεται (?), i.e. ἀνοίγεται (?)

Use this Leiden+: <:ἀνοίγεται (?)|ἀνοίεται (?)||reg||ἀ̣νύεται:>

To create this XML: <choice><reg cert="low">ἀνοίγεται </reg><reg cert="low">ἀνοίεται </reg><orig><unclear>ἀ</unclear>νύεται</orig></choice>

Example PN Link:

Leiden+ supports not only simple regularizations but 'chains' of regularization. For example, let us say that I scribe wrote "ἀ̣νύεται", which is held to be a likely phonetic representation of ἀνοίεται, which itself perhaps ought to be regularized to ἀνοίγεται.

<:ἀνοίγεται (?)|ἀνοίεται (?)||reg||ἀ̣νύεται:>

Apparatus, orthographic regularization, for language

To get this PN preview: Text: ⲁⲣⲁⲕ….App: i.e. Greek ἄρακος

Use this Leiden+: <:ἄρακος=grc|reg|ⲁⲣⲁⲕ:>

To create this XML: <choice><reg xml:lang="grc">ἄρακος</reg><orig>ⲁⲣⲁⲕ</orig></choice>

Example PN Link:

Leiden+ treats multi-lingual equivalencies as a kind of rough 'regularization'. So, if a mainly Greek text has some Coptic written in it, and you would like to indicate the Greek word that a Coptic word represents, mark up as follows:

<:ἄρακος=grc|reg|ⲁⲣⲁⲕ:> 

The text will print ⲁⲣⲁⲕ and the app will read "i.e. Greek ἄρακος"


Alternate Reading (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: Ὀχυρυγχίτου…App: or Ὀξυρυγχίτου νομοῦ

Use this Leiden+: <:Ὀχυρυγχίτου|alt|Ὀξυρυγχίτου νομοῦ:>

To create this XML: <app type="alternative"><lem>Ὀχυρυγχίτου</lem><rdg>Ὀξυρυγχίτου νομοῦ</rdg></app>

Example PN Link: BGU.6.1265

Alternate readings posited by the editor. Preferred reading (<lem>) will appear in the text, the alternative (<rdg>) in the apparatus.


Alternate reading, multiple

To get this PN preview: Text: [ - ca.? - ] ̣αμεν ̣ν̣…App: or [ἀπογρα]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣, or [θρε]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣

Use this Leiden+: <:[.?].1αμεν.1ν̣||alt||[ἀπογρα]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣|[θρε]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣:>

To create this XML: <app type="alternative"><lem><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/>αμεν<gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/><unclear>ν</unclear></lem><rdg><supplied reason="lost">ἀπο

Example PN Link:

Multiple alternate readings posited by the editor. Preferred reading (<lem>) will appear in the text, the alternatives (<rdg>) in the apparatus.

Where the papyrus reads, e.g. [ - - - ] ̣αμεν ̣ν̣ and the editor posits perhaps [ἀπογρα]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣ or [θρε]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣, encode:

<:[.?].1αμεν.1ν̣||alt||[ἀπογρα]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣|[θρε]ψ̣αμένη̣ν̣:>

Alternate reading (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: Text: Ὀχυρυγχίτου(?)…App: or Ὀξυρυγχίτου νομοῦ(?)

Use this Leiden+: <:Ὀχυρυγχίτου(?)|alt|Ὀξυρυγχίτου νομοῦ(?):>

To create this XML: <app type="alternative"><lem>Ὀχυρυγχίτου<certainty match=".." locus="value"/></lem><rdg>Ὀξυρυγχίτου νομοῦ<certainty match=".." locus="value"/></rdg></app>

Example PN Link: bgu;6;1265

By definition, all alternate readings are uncertain, but to indicate especial uncertainty as to one or both possibilities, enter as follows:

<:Ὀχυρυγχίτου(?)|alt|Ὀξυρυγχίτου νομοῦ(?):>

Scribal Correction (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: τοῦ…App: corr. from της

Use this Leiden+: <:τοῦ|subst|της:>

To create this XML: <subst><add place="inline">τοῦ</add><del rend="corrected">της</del></subst>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

To indicate scribal corrections and alterations. Note that as a general rule, the original reading does not carry diacriticals; also that this apparatus tag is used for entire words and not for the corrected characters alone.

Indicating that the scribe wrote της and corrected to τοῦ: <:τοῦ|subst|της:>

No: τ<:οῦ|subst|ης:> 
Yes: <:τοῦ|subst|της:>

Scribal correction (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: Text: τοῦ…App: corr. from της --> Text: τοῦ(?)…App: corr. from της(?)

Use this Leiden+: <:τοῦ(?)|subst|της(?):>

To create this XML: <subst><add place="inline">τοῦ<certainty match=".." locus="value"/></add><del rend="corrected">της<certainty match=".." locus="value"/></del></subst>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.154

To indicate scribal corrections and alterations where one or both readings is uncertain. Follow the conventions for an ordinary scribal correction, but add (?) to the affected reading.

<:τοῦ|subst|της:> --> <:τοῦ(?)|subst|της(?):>

Spelling Correction (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: τιμὴν….App: τμμὴν pap.

Use this Leiden+: <:τιμὴν|corr|τμμὴν:>

To create this XML: <choice><corr>τιμὴν</corr><sic>τμμὴν</sic></choice>

Example PN Link:

For correction of outright scribal error, e.g. στ[ρ]α̣ττεός for στρατηγός.

  1. where possible enter στρατ{τ}ηγός rather than <:στρατηγός|corr|στραττηγός:> (NOTE: this does not apply to e.g. ὁμολογῶι, which is to be encoded as an orthographic regularization: <:ὁμολογῶ|reg|ὁμολογῶι:>)
  2. where possible enter στρα<τ>ηγός rather than <:στρατηγός|corr|στραηγός:>
  3. in the case of στ[ρ]α̣ττεός for στρατηγός
    1. enter <:(στ[ρ]ατ{τ}η<γ>(ός))|corr|(στ[ρ]α̣ττε(ός)):> (Note: all Leiden except for underdots on left side of 'corr')
    2. PN displays: text: στ[ρ]α̣ττε(ός) / app: l. στρατηγός (corr)

Corrections to Published Texts

Berichtigungliste Corrections (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: αἱ τοῦ…App: BL 9.17: Θίτου Original ed.

Use this Leiden+: <:αἱ τοῦ=BL 9.17|ed|Θίτου:>

To create this XML: <app type="editorial"><lem resp="BL 9.17">αἱ τοῦ</lem><rdg>Θίτου</rdg></app>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.141

To indicate corrections that have been flagged in the Berichtigungsliste, e.g. <:αἱ τοῦ=BL 9.17|ed|Θίτου:>, where αἱ τοῦ is the correction recorded by BL and Θίτου is the deprecated reading.


Berichtigungsliste correction (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: Text: αἱ τοῦ(?)…App: BL 9.17: Θίτου Original ed.

Use this Leiden+: <:αἱ τοῦ(?)=BL 9.17|ed|Θίτου:>

To create this XML: <app type="editorial"><lem resp="BL 9.17">αἱ τοῦ<certainty match=".." locus="value"/></lem><rdg>Θίτου</rdg></app>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;141

To indicate uncertain corrections that have been flagged in the Berichtigungsliste


Editorial Correction (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: κγ…App: bgu 1 p.357: κϛ Original ed.

Use this Leiden+: <:<#κγ=23#>=BGU 1 p.357|ed|<#κϛ=26#>:>

To create this XML: <app type="editorial"><lem resp="BGU 1 p.357"><num value="23">κγ</num></lem><rdg><num value="26">κϛ</num></rdg></app>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.154

Used for two situations: to indicate a correction proposed in a publication (not reported by Berichtigungsliste); either

  1. correction proposed in series Corrigenda list: <:<#κγ=23#>=bgu 1 p.357|ed|<#κϛ=26#>:>, where κγ is the new reading and κϛ is the deprecated reading.
  2. or proposed in a publication: <:(διαγρ(άφου))=N. Gonis, ZPE 143 (2003) 150|ed|(διαγρ(αφῆς)):>, where διαγρ(άφου) is the new reading and διαγρ(αφῆς) is the deprecated reading.

Editorial correction (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: Text: κγ(?)…App: bgu 1 p.357: κϛ Original ed.

Use this Leiden+: <:<#κγ=23#>(?)=bgu 1 p.357|ed|<#κϛ=26#>:>

To create this XML: <app type="editorial"><lem resp="bgu 1 p.357"><num value="23">κγ</num><certainty match=".." locus="value"/></lem><rdg><num value="26">κϛ</num></rdg></app>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

Where an editorial correction is only tentative, uncertain, enter as follows:

<:<#κγ=23#>(?)=BGU 1 p.357|ed|<#κϛ=26#>:>

PN/PE Correction (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: τοῦ…App: W.G. Claytor (CPR VI plate 35): Om. Original ed.

Use this Leiden+: <:τοῦ=PN W.G. Claytor (CPR VI plate 35)|ed|:>

To create this XML: <app type="editorial"><lem resp="PN W.G. Claytor (CPR VI plate 35)">τοῦ</lem><rdg/></app>

Example PN Link: cpr;6;82

Indicates a correction proposed directly to DDbDP via PE.

So, the following emendation observes the omission from an edition of a word clearly visible (from the published plate) on the papyrus:

<:τοῦ=PN W.G. Claytor (CPR VI plate 35)|ed|:> 

The corrected text is το­ῦ and the deprecated text is 'null', since this corrects an omission. Had the emendation sought to correct an existing (rather than omitted) reading, it might have looked like this:

<:τοῦ=PN W.G. Claytor (CPR VI plate 35)|ed|μου:> 

Complicated Corrections (return to top)

To get this PN preview: 275. corr. ex σ ̣ ̣[ -ca.?- ] (or γ ̣ ̣ ̣[ -ca.?- ]), BL 15.2 : ξτρ[ατηλάτης] (l. στρ[ατηλάτης) (or ̣γρ[ -ca.?- ]) J. Cowey, ZPE 150 (2020) 321-323 : στυ̣ρ[ατ -ca.?- ] (l. στρ[ατιώτης (or στρ[ατηγία])) R. Ast, CdE 100 (2018) 13-15 (BL 14.5) : etc.

Use this Leiden+: <:<:στρ[ατηγὸς]|subst|<:σ.2[.?]|alt|γ.3[.?]:>:>=BL 15.2||ed||<:<:στρ[ατηλάτης]|reg|ξτρ[ατηλάτης]:>|alt|.1γρ[.?]:>=J. Cowey, ZPE 150 (2020) 321-323|<:<:στρ[ατιώτης]|alt|στρ[ατηγία]:>|reg|στυ̣ρ[ατ][.?]:>=R. Ast, CdE 100 (2018) 13-15 (BL 14.5)|<:Συρ[ίων](?)|

To create this XML: <app type="editorial"><lem resp="BL 15.2"><subst><add place="inline">στρ<supplied reason="lost">ατηγὸς</supplied></add><del rend="corrected"><app type="alternative"><lem>σ<gap reason="illegible" quantity="2" unit="character"/><gap reason="lost" extent="un

Example PN Link:

Leiden+ is capable of handling even extremely complicated series of corrections. Take the following completely fictional example:

275. <:<:στρ[ατηγὸς]|subst|<:σ.2[.?]|alt|γ.3[.?]:>:>=BL 19.2||ed|| 
<:<:στρ[ατηλάτης]|reg|ξ̣τ̣ρ[ατηλάτης]:>|alt|.1γρ[.?]:>=J. Cowey, ZPE 150 (2020) 321-323| 
<:<:στρ[ατιώτης]|alt|στρ[ατηγία]:>|reg|στυ̣ρ[ατ][.?]:>=R. Ast, CdE 100 (2018) 13-15 (BL 14.5)| 
<:Συρ[ίων](?)|reg|<:<:Σο̣υ̣ρ[ίων]||alt||Συ̣υ̣ρ[ίων]|Σω̣υ̣ρ[ίων]:>|subst|Σ.2ρ[ίων]:>:>=Original Edition:> 

This means:

  1. at line 275 the DDbDP prints στρ[ατηγὸς], which the scribe himself corrected from either "σ . . [ca.?]" or "γ . . . [ca.?]", and which is recorded in BL vol.19 p.2
  2. previously, Cowey had argued (in ZPE 150) for correcting the text to either στρ[ατηλάτης], which is a modern regularization of ξ̣τ̣ρ[ατηλάτης], or to ". γρ[ca.?]"
  3. before Cowey, Ast had suggested (in CdÉ 100) that the papyrus reads στυ̣ρ[ατ- ca.?], which should be regularized either to στρ[ατιώτης] or to στρ[ατηγία]; this was subsequently picked up by BL 14.5
  4. The original editors of the papyrus thought that the scribe had originally written "Σ . . ρ[ίων]", and then corrected it to either Σο̣υ̣ρ[ίων] or Συ̣υ̣ρ[ίων] or Σω̣υ̣ρ[ίων], any one of which should perhaps be regularized to Συρ[ίων]

Under this model, simple corrections may be concatenated:

275a. <:στρ[ατηγὸς]=BL 15.2||ed|| 
στρ[ατηλάτης]=J. Cowey, ZPE 150 (2020) 321-323| 
στρ[ατιώτης]=R. Ast, CdE 100 (2018) 13-15 (BL 14.5)| 
Συρ[ίων]=Original Edition:> 

or, any class of correction may be 'nested' inside any other (as above).


Numbers and Special Characters

Numbers (return to top)

Number whole

To get this PN preview: ιϛ

Use this Leiden+: <#ιϛ=16#>

To create this XML: <num value="16">ιϛ</num>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.1.8

Numbers should be accompanied by their values.


Number fraction

To get this PN preview: ιϛ

Use this Leiden+: <#ιϛ=1/16#>

To create this XML: <num value="1/16">ιϛ</num>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

Fractions should be accompanied by their values, just as whole numbers.


Number with '

To get this PN preview: λβ´

Use this Leiden+: <#λβ '=1/32#>

To create this XML: <num value="1/32" rend="tick">λβ</num>

Example PN Link: P.Matr.1

To indicate the presence of a tick on the papyrus. This works for both fractions and whole numbers. In the PN a mouseover pop-up will alert you as to whether a number is whole or fraction. Note: the tick must be the standard ascii ('), not a Smart Quote, and not a Greek Unicode apostrophe (just as the system requires <...> and does not permit Greek Unicode ⟨...⟩)

For example:

    <γ '=3> 
    <γ '=1/3>

Uncertainly read number

To get this PN preview: σ̣ν̣ϛ̣´

Use this Leiden+: <#σ̣ν̣ϛ̣ '=1/256#>

To create this XML: <num value="1/256" rend="tick"><unclear>σνϛ</unclear></num>

Example PN Link: O.Bodl.2

Underdot numbers as you would any other uncertainly read character.


Illegible numbers

To get this PN preview: ̣ ̣

Use this Leiden+: <#.2=#>

To create this XML: <num><gap reason="illegible" quantity="2" unit="character"/></num>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.64.4435

To indicate presence of an illegible number


Missing numbers

To get this PN preview: [ ̣ ̣ ]

Use this Leiden+: <#[.2]=#>

To create this XML: <num><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/></num>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

To indicate a lost number, simply enter a lacuna where you would normally enter the Greek number and leave the value blank.


Number, no symbol

To get this PN preview: nothing

Use this Leiden+: <#=4#>

To create this XML: <num value="4"/>

Example PN Link: P.Matr.2

Numbers that are spelled out in Latin and Greek are followed by 'empty' number tags.


Number, fraction, no symbol

To get this PN preview: nothing

Use this Leiden+: <#=1/8#>

To create this XML: <num value="1/8"/>

Example PN Link: P.Matr.2

Numbers that are spelled out in Latin and Greek are followed by 'empty' number tags.


Number with symbol & value with markup

To get this PN preview: ι[ε(?)] = SoSOL, α[ε][̣]̣ = PN

Use this Leiden+: <#ι[ε(?)]=15#>

To create this XML: <num value="15">ι<supplied reason="lost" cert="low">ε</supplied></num>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.1.8

Need to create detailed instructions and explanation


Diacriticals (return to top)

Diaeresis

To get this PN preview: Text: υ ἱ(¨)οῦ…App:16. υϊου pap.

Use this Leiden+: υ ἱ(¨)οῦ

To create this XML: υ<hi rend="diaeresis">ἱ</hi>οῦ

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.2.35

Diaeresis written by scribe. Note: the letter containing the ancient diacritical must be preceded at left by an extra space, even if the letter is midword; this space will not be displayed. Example: υ ἱ(¨)οῦ


Asper

To get this PN preview: Text: ὧ ... App: ὡ pap.

Use this Leiden+: ὧ( ῾)

To create this XML: <hi rend="asper">ὧ</hi>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.14.1765

Asper written by scribe. Note: the letter containing the ancient diacritical must be preceded at left by an extra space, even if the letter is midword; this space will not be displayed.


Acute

To get this PN preview: Text: ὃ ... App.: ό pap.

Use this Leiden+: ὃ(´)

To create this XML: <hi rend="acute">ὃ</hi>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.16.1854

Acute written by scribe. Note: the letter containing the ancient diacritical must be preceded at left by an extra space, even if the letter is midword; this space will not be displayed.


Circumflex

To get this PN preview: Text: ὑ ... App: ῦ pap.

Use this Leiden+: ὑ(^)

To create this XML: <hi rend="circumflex">ὑ</hi>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.1.125

Circumflex written by scribe. Note: the letter containing the ancient diacritical must be preceded at left by an extra space, even if the letter is midword; this space will not be displayed.


Lenis

To get this PN preview: Text: ἄ ... App.: ἀ pap.

Use this Leiden+: Ἀ( ᾿)

To create this XML: <hi rend="lenis">Ἀ</hi>

Example PN Link: BGU.3.715

Lenis written by scribe. Note: the letter containing the ancient diacritical must be preceded at left by an extra space, even if the letter is midword; this space will not be displayed.


Double diacritical

To get this PN preview: Text: ἵ ... App.: ἱ pap. ί pap. --> Text: ἵ ... App.: ἵ pap.

Use this Leiden+: ἵ( ῾´)

To create this XML: <hi rend="asper"><hi rend="acute">ἵ</hi></hi>

Example PN Link: P.Ryl.4.624

Multiple ancient diacriticals. For double diacriticals simply combine the ordinary symbols inside a single pair pf parens.


Diacritical over illegible character

To get this PN preview: Text: ̣ ... App.: ¨ pap.

Use this Leiden+: .1(¨)

To create this XML: <hi rend="diaeresis"><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/></hi>

Example PN Link: CPR.5.6

Ancient diacritical written atop illegible character. Note: the letter containing the ancient diacritical must be preceded at left by an extra space, even if the letter is midword; this space will not be displayed.


Diacritical over lost character

To get this PN preview: Text: [ ̣] ... App.: ´ pap.

Use this Leiden+: [.1](´)

To create this XML: <hi rend="acute"><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/></hi>

Example PN Link: P.Wisc.2.70

Ancient diacritical written atop character that is now lost in lacuna. Note: the letter containing the ancient diacritical must be preceded at left by an extra space, even if the letter is midword; this space will not be displayed.


Special Characters (return to top)

Paragraphos

To get this PN preview: ——

Use this Leiden+: ----

To create this XML: <milestone rend="paragraphos" unit="undefined"/>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.28

To indicate paragraphos between, say, lines 4 and 5, enter as follows:

    3. text 

    4. text 

    ---- 

    5. text 

Note: paragraphoi should be entered 'between lines', as above, and not on their own lines.


Horizontal rule on papyrus

To get this PN preview: ————————

Use this Leiden+: --------

To create this XML: <milestone rend="horizontal-rule" unit="undefined"/>

Example PN Link: BGU.7.1526

To indicate horizontal rule on papyrus. To indicate paragraphos between, say, lines 4 and 5, enter as follows:

    3. text 

    4. text 

    -------- 

    5. text 

Note: horizontal rules should be entered 'between lines', as above, and not on their own lines.


Non-alphabetical characters or symbols (example: slanting-stroke)

To get this PN preview: /

Use this Leiden+: *slanting-stroke*

To create this XML: <g type="slanting-stroke"/>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.2.38

To indicate slanting stroke(s) written on papyrus.


Uncertain non-alphabetical characters or symbols (example: check)

To get this PN preview:

Use this Leiden+: *check?*

To create this XML: <unclear><g type="check"/></unclear>

Example PN Link: BGU.1.186

Unclear ancient 'check' mark on papyrus.


Non-alphabetical character with symbol (example: Chi-rho)

To get this PN preview:

Use this Leiden+: *chirho*

To create this XML: <g type="chirho"/g>

Example PN Link:

To indicate chi-rho symbol; you may indicate preferred Unicode symbol: *chirho,☧*


Uncertain non-alphabetical character with symbol (example: Chi-rho)

To get this PN preview: ☧̣

Use this Leiden+: *chirho?*

To create this XML: <unclear><g type="chirho"/></unclear>

Example PN Link: p.jena;2;19

To indicate an uncertain chi-rho symbol; you may indicate preferred Unicode symbol: *chirho?,☧*


Filler stroke

To get this PN preview:

Use this Leiden+: *filler(extension)*

To create this XML: <g rend="extension" type="filler"/>

Example PN Link: P.Berl.Leihg.1.17

Filler strokes, usually at end of line.


Filler stroke (uncertain)

To get this PN preview: ø --> ―(?)

Use this Leiden+: *filler(extension)?*

To create this XML: <unclear><g rend="extension" type="filler"/></unclear>

Example PN Link: BGU.2.509

Unclear filler stroke on papyrus.


S-type etous

To get this PN preview: ((s-etous))

Use this Leiden+: *s-etous*

To create this XML: <g type="s-etous"/>

Example PN Link: P.Lips.1.109

S-type etous symbol.


'Parens' on papyrus

To get this PN preview: ((parens-punctuation-opening)) ((parens-punctuation-closing)) --> distinct unicode parens

Use this Leiden+: *parens-punctuation-opening* *parens-punctuation-closing*

To create this XML: <g type="parens-punctuation-opening"/> <g type="parens-punctuation-closing"/>

Example PN Link: bgu.7.1621

Text marked in antiquity with opening parens, closing parens, or both. If the ancient parens indicate(s) deletion mark the affected string with ((parens-punctuation-opening)) and/or ((parens-punctuation-closing)) and fully enclose in 〚...〛. If the semantic meaning of the parens is not clearly deletion, then use ((parens-punctuation-opening)) and/or ((parens-punctuation-closing)) alone.


Figure on papyri

To get this PN preview: seal

Use this Leiden+: #seal

To create this XML: <figure><figDesc>seal</figDesc></figure>

Example PN Link: P.Cair.Zen.1.59003

Need to create detailed instructions and explanation


Language

Non-default Language (return to top)

To get this PN preview: γενήσεται

Use this Leiden+: ~|γενήσεται|~grc

To create this XML: <foreign xml:lang="grc">γενήσεται</foreign>

Example PN Link: SB.20.14688

Indicate text strings written in a language/script other than the document's default as follows:

    Greek = ~|γενήσεται|~grc 
    Latin = ~|comes|~la 
    Ancient Greek in Latin script = ~|di emu|~grc-Latn 
    Latin in Greek script = ~|σουσκριβερεντ|~la-Grek 

NOTE: You must enter a space after the language designator; so, not "~la", but "~la ".


Non-default Language: Latin

To get this PN preview: comes

Use this Leiden+: ~|comes|~la

To create this XML: <foreign xml:lang="la">comes</foreign>

Example PN Link: bgu;1;154

If the default language of a text is Greek, mark strings of Latin as follows: ~|comes|~la


Omitted (return to top)

Omitted language

To get this PN preview: Demotic 1 line

Use this Leiden+: (Lang: Demotic 1 lines)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" quantity="1" unit="line"><desc>Demotic</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Hib.1.142

Lines of Demotic omitted from DDbDP or edition.


Omitted language

To get this PN preview: Coptic ? lines

Use this Leiden+: (Lang: Coptic ? lines)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" extent="unknown" unit="line"><desc>Coptic</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: Stud.Pal.10.172

Lines of Coptic omitted from DDbDP or edition.


Omitted language

To get this PN preview: Demotic ? lines

Use this Leiden+: (Lang: Demotic ? lines)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" extent="unknown" unit="line"><desc>Demotic</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: T.Mom.Louvre.30

Unknown number of lines of Demotic omitted from DDbDP or edition.


Omitted language

To get this PN preview: Demotic 2 characters

Use this Leiden+: (Lang: Demotic 2 char)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" quantity="2" unit="character"><desc>Demotic</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: O.Wilck.457

Demotic characters omitted from DDbDP or edition.


Omitted language

To get this PN preview: Demotic ? characters

Use this Leiden+: (Lang: Demotic ? char)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" extent="unknown" unit="character"><desc>Demotic</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: O.Leid.15

Unknown number of Demotic characters omitted from DDbDP or edition.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: 19 lines untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Lines: 19 non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" quantity="19" unit="line"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Tebt.2.574

Known number of lines left untranscribed by editor.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: ? lines untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Lines: ? non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" extent="unknown" unit="line"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: Stud.Pal.10.178

Unknown number of lines left untranscribed by editor.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: 1-3 lines untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Lines: 1-3 non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" atLeast="1" atMost="3" unit="line"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.58.3958

Range of lines left untranscribed by editor.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: ca.7 lines untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Lines: ca.7 non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" quantity="7" unit="line" precision="low"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Oxy.2.396

Estimated number of lines left untranscribed by editor.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: ? characters untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Chars: ? non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" extent="unknown" unit="character"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: SB.20.14952

Unknown number of characters left untranscribed by editor.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: 1 character untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Chars: 1 non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" quantity="1" unit="character"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

_Example PN Link:

Known number of characters left untranscribed by editor.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: 1-2 characters untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Chars: 1-2 non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" atLeast="1" atMost="2" unit="character"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

Example PN Link: P.Eleph.Wagner.1.365

Range of characters left untranscribed by editor.


Untranscribed

To get this PN preview: ca.18 characters untranscribed

Use this Leiden+: (Chars: ca.18 non transcribed)

To create this XML: <gap reason="ellipsis" quantity="18" unit="character" precision="low"><desc>non transcribed</desc></gap>

Example PN Link:

Estimated number of characters left untranscribed by editor.


Orthographic Regularization, for Language (return to top)

To get this PN preview: Text: ⲁⲣⲁⲕ….App: i.e. Greek ἄρακος

Use this Leiden+: <:ἄρακος=grc|reg|ⲁⲣⲁⲕ:>

To create this XML: <choice><reg xml:lang="grc">ἄρακος</reg><orig>ⲁⲣⲁⲕ</orig></choice>

Example PN Link:

Leiden+ treats multi-lingual equivalencies as a kind of rough 'regularization'. So, if a mainly Greek text has some Coptic written in it, and you would like to indicate the Greek word that a Coptic word represents, mark up as follows:

<:ἄρακος=grc|reg|ⲁⲣⲁⲕ:> 

The text will print ⲁⲣⲁⲕ and the app will read "i.e. Greek ἄρακος"